Pew Research Center

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The recent retirement spike has not been uniform across demographic groups. The share of older White adults who are retired increased 3 points from Q3 of 2019 to Q3 of 2021. The retirement rate of older Black adults did not significantly increase.
The number of U.S. workers on the payrolls of self-employed workers held steady at about 31.5 million from 2019 to 2020. The number workers on the payrolls of other businesses fell from 110.5 million to 98.7 million.
57% of Latino adults say skin color affects their daily life experiences a lot (24%) or some (32%), while about one-in-five say skin color does not have much effect in their daily life or no influence at all (21% and 20% respectively).
During the Great Recession and its aftermath, retirement rates declined. But the financial context in which older adults are making retirement decisions during the pandemic is markedly different from the Great Recession.
It is one of four self-assessment measures of racial identity we offered the respondents in our survey. You can learn about the others here:…
The chart tweeted previously depicts a version of the Yadon-Ostfeld 10-point skin color scale, an established method used by scholars in many fields for assessing skin color among Latinos and other groups.
Our goal is to add context to important questions about real-life experiences and the diversity of the nation’s Latino population. We stand by the methods we employed to study colorism among U.S. Latinos.
Would we send this particular tweet again? No. Outside of our written report, it lacks context, including the context of how this information was used in our broader analysis.
If we had not asked Hispanics to describe their skin color and tell us more about how they see themselves, we would not have been able to identify the connection between skin color and the experiences with discrimination Latinos told us they have had.…
And individuals who self-reported having darker skin color were more likely than those who self-reported having lighter skin color to say they had experienced discriminatory incidents.
Our study did in fact find that Hispanics overall say skin color has a broad impact on their life experiences.
In this study, we wanted to understand if and how Hispanics in the U.S. are experiencing discrimination based on skin color, also known as colorism.
Also, as part of our commitment to generating a foundation of facts that enriches the public dialogue, we continuously look for ways to study the complexity of identity and self-identification.
Why would we ask Latinos to describe their skin color? Why would we study experiences based on skin color at all? Because discrimination based on skin color has deep historical roots.
This chart depicts how Hispanics in our American Trends Panel self-described their skin color. We asked as part of this report:…
Some people on Twitter are wondering why we sent this tweet. Here’s some context.
Discrimination based on race or skin color is seen as a very big problem in the U.S. today by 48% of Latino adults. An additional 32% say it is a moderately big problem.
More people globally see racial, ethnic discrimination as a serious problem in the U.S. than in their own society
While Hispanics are split on how much attention is paid to race and racial issues generally in the country today, when it comes to race and racial issues concerning Hispanic people, about half (51%) say too little attention is paid to them today.
The large impact of the COVID-19 recession on retirement differs from recent recessions and marks a significant change in a long-standing historical trend toward declining or steady retirement rates among older adults.
Self-employed U.S. workers and the businesses they run are a significant source of job creation. In 2019, the self-employed had 31.4 million employees on their payrolls. That number fell to 28.3 million in 2021.
Among U.S. workers who are not self-employed but are actively at work, neither women nor men have returned to their pre-recession level of employment.
Report from @PewReligion: In U.S., Far More Support Than Oppose Separation of Church and State
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% of older adults who are retired as of Q3 2021: • Ages 55-64: 17.1% • 65-74: 66.9% • 75+: 86.7%
The share of U.S. women who were self-employed and actively at work fell by 15% from the second quarter of 2019 to the second quarter of 2020. Among men, self-employment dropped by 13.7% from 2019 to 2020.
In the first year of the pandemic, 54% of Latinos experienced discrimination and 30% say they heard expressions of support. For more, see our new report on US Latinos and the impact of skin color in their lives. @pewresearch @PewHispanic…
Retweeted by Pew Research Center
About two-thirds (68%) of Latinos who had a discrimination experience in the past year say skin color shapes their daily life experiences a lot or some, compared with 43% of those who had no discrimination experiences that say the same.
48% of Hispanic adults say they often or sometimes heard a Hispanic friend or family member make comments or jokes about other Hispanics that might be considered racist or racially insensitive.
Changes in self-employment played out similarly among American women and men, both of whom experienced sharp losses in employment in 2020 and notable gains in 2021.
Among all Hispanic adults, 37% say that too little attention is paid to race and racial issues in our country these days. 36% say there is too much attention and 25% say the amount of attention is about right.
Race, skin color and the state of race relations sometimes come up in conversations Latinos have with family and friends. 48% say discrimination based on race or skin color is a topic in conversations often or sometimes with friends and relatives.
As of the third quarter of 2021, 50.3% of U.S. adults 55 and older said they were out of the labor force due to retirement. In the third quarter of 2019, 48.1% of those adults were retired.
Among Latinos born in another country or Puerto Rico, 40% say discrimination based on race or skin color is about the same in both the place of their birth and in the U.S.
54% of Hispanic adults experienced at least one of the eight discrimination incidents asked about in our new survey.
During the Great Recession the retirement rate among older adults declined. The COVID-19 recession and recovery is different. The retirement rate of older adults has increased over the past two years.
Retweeted by Pew Research Center
Younger Latinos are more likely to say they experienced discrimination than older Latinos, according to our new survey.
While a majority of Latinos say skin color impacts Latinos’ opportunity in the U.S. today, education and immigration status are viewed by more as having an impact on the ability to get ahead.
As employers contend with growing numbers of younger employees quitting in the great resignation, the COVID-19 recession and gradual labor market recovery has also been accompanied by an increase in retirement among adults ages 55 and older.
Younger adults may be quitting in the great resignation, but older adults are retiring and leaving the labor force in the pandemic's wake.
Retweeted by Pew Research Center
68% of Latinos who identify as Democrats say skin color affects their daily experiences, compared with 40% who identify as Republican.
NEW: Amid the pandemic, a rising share of older U.S. adults are now retired
57% of Hispanic adults say skin color shapes their daily life experiences a lot or some, and 48% say discrimination based on race or skin color is a “very big problem” in the U.S. today.
Latinos’ views on topics related to race or skin color differ by their own experiences with discrimination:
In the year prior to March 2021, among Latinos in the U.S. who speak Spanish at least a little, 31% of those with darker skin say someone criticized them for speaking Spanish in public, as did 20% of those with lighter skin.
59% of Hispanic adults say having a lighter skin color helps Hispanics get ahead in the United States.
Among discrimination experiences included in our survey, being treated as if they were not smart is the most reported among Latinos in the U.S. 42% of Latinos with darker skin say this happened to them, as do 34% of Latinos with lighter skin.
64% of Hispanics with darker skin say they personally experienced at least one of the eight discrimination incidents asked about in our survey, while 54% of Hispanics with lighter skin color say the same.
NEW: Majority of Latinos Say Skin Color Impacts Opportunity in America and Shapes Daily Life
Retweeted by Pew Research Center
NEW: We asked US Latinos about the way skin color shapes their lives. What did they say? See our new report:… @pewresearch @PewHispanic
Retweeted by Pew Research Center
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